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APA Citation Style

Information and resources on citing and referencing using APA citation style

Quick Answers on Referencing using APA Style

  • Where a DOI has been provided, it is recommended that you include it in your reference
  • Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material is likely to change over time (e.g., nonarchived wiki pages).
  • For dates that cannot be determined, use n.d. (for no date). If the date can reasonably be approximated, put ca. (for circa) followed by the year, inside brackets.
  • If the issuing organisation assigned a number (e.g., report number, contract number, monograph number) to the report, give that number in parentheses immediately after the title.
  • If additional information is necessary for identification and retrieval of a reference, it may be included in brackets immediately after the title and any parenthetical information.
  • Do not italicize the titles of blog posts, online forum messages, comments, status updates, and so forth. Do italicize titles of reports and other documents that stand alone. If the distinction is unclear for a particular document (as may sometimes be the case when the organisation of a site is itself unclear), authors should use their own judgment to decide whether to italicize. Err on the side of not italicizing.
  • If you cannot find the reference example you need in the Publication Manual, choose the example that is most like your source and follow that format. Sometimes you may need to combine elements of more than one reference format.

Citing articles in MIESearch

You can find a short video on using the 'cite' function in MIESearch (the same as the one found in EBSCOhost or EBSCO Discovery Service) below. This is an easy way to cite articles and other materials that you find in MIESearch in the correct citation style (APA).

Referencing software

You can also use referencing tools such as Mendeley, Zotero, Endnote and Refworks to help you cite-in-text and build a reference list. MIE Library does not subscribe to any of these tools but we do provide support for (and guides to) using Mendeley and Zotero. If you have questions about these, get in touch with

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