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APA 7 Referencing: How to reference

This library guide provides information on how to correctly use the APA 7th edition referencing style. This guide covers how and when referencing should be used in academic writing, how to avoid plagiarism and how to manage references.

How to construct a reference list

You need to list all of the works you have cited in your essay in one list at the end of your essay. Title this list “References”. You cannot list anything in your references that you have not cited in your essay, even if you have read the book/article during your research.

Your reference list should be arranged alphabetically by the first word of the reference, which is usually the author's last name.

Your reference list should be formatted with a hanging indent, so it should look like this:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Sample references

Click the headings below to see an example of each type of reference.

Author last name, first initial. (Year of publication). Title of book in italics. Name of publisher. )

Desailly, J. (2015). Creativity in the primary classroom. Sage Publications Ltd.

In-text citation: (Desailly, 2015)

Author last name, first initial., & Second author last name, first initial. (Year of publication). Title of book in italics. Name of publisher.

Sousa, D., & Pilecki, T. (2013). From STEM to STEAM: Using brain-compatible strategies to integrate the arts. Corwin.

In-text citation: (Sousa & Pilecki, 2013)

Author last name, first initial., Second author last name, first initial., & Third author last name, first initial. (Year of publication). Title of book in italics. Name of publisher.

Snowman, J., McCown, R., & Biehler, R. (2009). Psychology applied to teaching (12th ed.). Houghton Mifflin.

In-text citation: (Snowman et al., 2009)

Name of organisation. (Year of publication). Title of book in italics. Name of publisher.

Economic and Social Research Institute. (2008). ESRI research strategy 2008 - 2013: Research for a changing Ireland. ESRI.

In-text citation: (Economic and Social Research Institute, 2008)

Last name of editor, first initial. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of book in italics. Name of publisher.

Whitebread, D. (Ed.). (2000). The psychology of teaching and learning in the primary school. Routledge.

In-text citation: (Whitebread, 2000)

Last name of editor, first initial., & last name of second editor, first initial. (Eds.). (Year of publication). Title of book in italics. Name of publisher.

Daniels, D. H., & Clarkson, P. K. (Eds.). (2010). A developmental approach to educating young children. Corwin.

In-text citation: (Daniels & Clarkson, 2010)

Author last name, first initial. (Year of publication). Title of book in italics (numbered edition of book). Name of publisher.

Whitehead, M. R. (2004). Language and literacy in the early years (3rd ed.). Sage Publications ltd.

In-text citation: (Whitehead, 2004)

Author last name, first initial. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In, last name of editor, first initial., & last name of second editor, first initial. (Eds.) Title of book in italics (page number range of chapter referenced). (Year of publication). Name of publisher.

Swaminathan, R. (2018). Impacts of Social Class and Poverty on Vulnerable Children. In Beachum, F. D., & Obiakor, F. E. (Eds.) Improving Educational Outcomes of Vulnerable Children (pp. 117 - 143). Plural Publishing, Inc.

In-text citation: (Swaminathan, 2018)

Author last name, first initial., & Second author last name, first initial. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of journal in italics, volume number(issue number), page number range of article referenced. URL

Magrath, C. J., & Fitzsimons, C. (2019). Funding Community Education in Ireland: Making the Case for a Needs-Based Approach. Journal of Social Science Education, 18(4), 38–50. https://eric.ed.gov/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=EJ1242911

In-text citation: (Magrath & Fitzsimons, 2019)

Author last name, first initial., Second author last name, first initial., & Third author last name, first initial. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of journal in italics, volume number(issue number), page number range of article referenced. URL

Gunawardena, H., Merlo, S., & Stevens, R. (2020). The preconditions to flourishing: Structural necessities for achieving wellbeing In schools. British Journal of Educational Studies, 68(4), 425-442. DOI: 10.1080/00071005.2020.1711857

In-text citation: (Gunawardena et al., 2020)

Name of organisation / website. (date, if no date on page “n.d.”). Title of page in italics. Retrieved (date you opened the page) Month day, year, from URL

Irish National Teachers’ Organisation. (n.d.). Services for members. Retrieved August 18, 2020, from https://www.into.ie/about/services-for-members/

In-text citation: (Irish National Teachers’ Organisation, n.d.)

Author last name, first initial., Second author last name, first initial. (Year of publication, Month day). Title of article. Title of newspaper in italics. URL

Power, J., Leahy, P., Horgan-Jones, J., & O’Brien, C. (2020, August 18). Calls for review of Leaving Cert grading system as Cabinet to discuss new Covid restrictions. The Irish Times. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/education/calls-for-review-of-leaving-cert-grading-system-as-cabinet-to-discuss-new-covid-restrictions-1.4332603

In-text citation: (Power et al., 2020)

Name of government department or agency. (Year of publication). Title of publication in italics. URL

Department of Education and Skills. (2015). 20 Year Strategy for the Irish Language 2010 to 2030 Progress Report: 2010 - 2015. https://www.education.ie/en/Publications/Policy-Reports/

In-text citation: (Department of Education and Skills, 2015)

Author last name, first initial., Second author last name, first initial. (Year of publication). Title of report in italics (number if applicable). Name of agency. URL

Stuster, J., Adolf, J., Byrne, V., & Greene, M. (2018). Human exploration of Mars: Preliminary lists of crew tasks (Report No. NASA/CR-2018-220043). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20190001401.pdf

In-text citation: (Stuster et al., 2018)

Irish legislation

Title, source or section number if available, (Year). URL

Social Welfare Act, (2010). http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/2010/act/34/enacted/en/html

In-text citation: (Social Welfare Act, 2010)


EU legislation

European Union, Name of the EU agency. (Year). Title of publication. (Legislation type i.e. Regulation/Policy/Directive and Number of Legislation). URL

European Union, Directorate General for Education and Culture. (2013). Union programme for education, training, youth and sport. (Regulation 1288/2013). http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2013/1288/oj

In-text citation: (Directorate General for Education and Culture, 2013

Author last name, first initial., Second author last name, first initial. (Year of conference). Title of paper. Name of conference proceedings in italics. URL

Lynch, R., & Brereton, B. (2019). “Can you hear me now?”: Insights from blended learning teachers. Proceedings of the International Conference on Engaging Pedagogy, Ireland. http://icep.ie/paper-template/?vconf=2019

In-text citation: (Lynch & Brereton, 2019)

Author last name, first initial. (Year of publication). Title of thesis in italics [Unpublished thesis]. Name of college or university.

Bambrick, C. (2019). An investigation into the view of immigrant parents in relation to the promotion of cultural diversity in a multicultural, Urban Primary School in Ireland [Unpublished Masters in Early Childhood Education thesis]. Marino Institute of Education.

In-text citation: (Bambrick, 2019)

Name of publisher. (date of entry or “n.d.” if no date given). Word or term being defined. In title of dictionary in italics. Retrieved month day, year, from URL of definition

Collins. (n.d.). Pedagogy. In Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved August 18, 2020, from https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/pedagogy

In-text citation: (Collins, n.d.)

Children’s book with illustrator different to author

Last name of author, first initial. (Year of publication). Title of book in italics (First initial of illustrator. Last name of illustrator, Illus.). Name of publisher.

Rubin, A. (2012). Drgaons love tacos (D. Salmieri, Illus.). Dial Books.

In-text citation: (Rubin, 2012)


Children’s book with illustrator same as author

Last name of author, first initial. (Year of publication). Title of book in italics (First initial of illustrator. Last name of illustrator, Illus.). Name of publisher.

Sarcone-Roach, J. (2019). There are no bears in this bakery (J. Sarcone-Roach, Illus.). Knopf Books for Young Readers.

In-text citation: (Sarcone-Roach, 2019)


Children’s book: part of a series

Last name of author, first initial. (Year of publication). Title of book in italics. Name of publisher.

You do not list the name of the series

Rowling, J. K. (1999). Harry Potter and the prisoner of Azkaban. Bloomsbury.

In-text citation: (Rowling, 1999)


Children’s book: anniversary or republished edition

Last name of author, first initial. (Year of publication).Title of book in italics (First initial of illustrator. Last name of illustrator, Illus.). Name of publisher. (Original work published year).

White, E. B. (2014). Charlotte’s web (G. Williams, Illus.). Puffin Classics. (Original work published 1952)

In-text citation: (White, 1952/2014)

A film

Last name of director, first initial. (Year of release). Title of film in italics [Film]. Name of production company/companies; separated by semicolons.

Peele, J. (2017). Get out [Film]. Universal Pictures; Blumhouse Productions; QC Entertainment; Monkeypaw Productions; Dentsu; Fuki Television Network.

In-text citation: (Peele, 2017)


A film in a language other than English

Last name of director, first initial. (Year of release). Title of film in original language in italics [Title of film in English][Film]. Name of production company.

Alfredson, T. (Director). (2008). Låt den rätte komma in [Let the right one in] [Film]. Magnolia.

In-text citation: (Alfredson, 2008)


TV series

Last name of executive producer, first initial. (First year of airing – last year of airing or “present” if currently airing). Title of tv series [TV series]. Name of production company/companies; separated by semicolons.

Aguirre-Sacasa, R., Berlanti, G., & Goldwater, J. (2017 - present).

Riverdale [TV Series]. Berlanti Productions; Archie Comics Publications; CBS Television Studios; Warner Bros. Television; Canada Films Capital.

In-text citation: (Aguirre-Sacasa et al., 2017 - present)


One episode of a TV series

Last name of writer of episode, first initial. (Writer), & Last name of director of episode, first initial. (Director). (Year of airing, month day). Name of episode (Season number, Episode number) [TV series episode]. In first initial of executive producer. Last name of executive producer, first initial of executive producer. Last name of executive producer (Executive Producers). Title of tv series in italics. Name of production company/companies; separated by semicolons.

Sherman-Palladino, A. (Writer & Director). (2018, December 5). All alone (Season 2, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In A. Sherman-Palladino, D. Palladino, D. Gilbert, M. Shapiro, S. Carino, & S. Lawrence (Executive Producers), The marvelous Mrs. Maisel. Dorothy Parker Drank Here Productions; Picrow; Amazon Studios.

In-text citation: (Sherman-Palladino, 2018)


All information about writers, directors, production companies etc. can be found on IMDB.

Name of YouTube Channel. (Year of publication, month day). Title of video in italics [Video]. YouTube. URL

MIE Library. (2018, August 4). Borrow a book from MIE library [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FJrhCyBpU7Q&t=11s

In-text citation: (MIE Library, 2018)

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